Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially in socio-economically productive groups. The people affected by malaria are forest dwellers and migrant forest workers. The incidence rate of malaria in 1993 was 9.6 per 1000 population (Ministry of Health, 2004).Tuberculosis is still a main public health problem in Cambodia, and it is classified by the WHO as one of the 23 countries in the world with high burden of tuberculosis. According to the WHO, it is estimated that 64% of Cambodian people were infected by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The incidence of smear positive cases (Sm+) is estimated to be 241 per 100, 000 inhabitants, with the death rate accounted for 90 deaths per 100,000 people per year (NTCP, 2001).
Since the implementation of directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) in 1994, the cure rate of tuberculosis reached to more than 85 per cent, and as of 2003, it was 90%, which is well above the international standard. However, of great concern is the increasing incidence of tuberculosis associated with HIV/AIDS, as the HIV sero-prevalence among TB patients is 12% as of 2003 (CENAT, 2003).
HIV/AIDS poses a great serious public health problem in Cambodia and it is currently estimated that 169,000 Cambodian people are living with HIV/AIDS (NCHAD, 2003). Although the estimated sero-prevalence among adults population aged 15-49 years old has shown a steady decline from 3.9% in 1997 to 2.6% in 2003. Further, the number of new HIV infections each year has also dropped, mainly among young people, as prevention strategies take effect. However, the national HIV prevalence in Cambodia remains the highest of any countries in Asia.In October 2000, Cambodia was certified as polio free, with no cases of poliomyelitis reported since March 1997.
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